The Gaddang number about 25,000. They are known to have inhabited the upper Cagayan Valley, particularly Isabela and Nueva Vizcaya since before the Spanish arrived. Their language is distantly related to Ibanag and Yogad; it is also spoken by ethnically-related highland Ga’dang in the provinces of Ifugao and Mountain Province
Ibanags are a predominantly Christian lowland ethnic group numbering around half a million people and who primarily inhabit the provinces of Cagayan and Isabela in Cagayan Valley, northern Luzon. They speak Ibanag, a language distantly related to Ilocano.
Untouched by the influences of Spanish colonialism, Ifugao culture values kinship, family ties, religious and cultural beliefs. Ifugao are unique among all ethnic groups in the mountain province for their narrative literature such as the hudhud, an epic dealing with hero ancestors sung in a poetic manner. Also unique to the Ifugao is their woodcarving art, most notably the carved granary guardians buluiand the prestige bench of the upper class, the hagabi.
The Ivatan (also spelled as Ibatan) are the predominant ethnoliguistic group in the Batanes islands of the Philippines. They have close cultural links with the Taiwanese aborigines.
The Ilocano people are a predominantly Christian group who reside within the lowlands and coastal areas of northwestern Luzon. Ilocanos are also found in scattered parts of Central Luzon, such asZambales, Nueva Ecija and Aurora, in Metro Manila and in some municipalities in Mindanao.They speak Ilocano and they form the third largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines at about 8.1 millionTheir foremost folk literature is Biag ni Lam-ang (The Life of Lam-ang), an epic poemwith similarities with the Ramayana.
The Kapampangan or Capampañgan people are the seventh largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines. They originate from Pampanga in the central plains of Luzon, stretching from northeastern Bataan and southeastern Zambales, all the way up to southern Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. They are predominantly Christian. The Kapampangan language is spoken by more than two million people.
The Kalinga people are highlanders and the most extensive rice farmers of the Cordillera peoples, having been blessed with some of the most suitable land for both wet and dry rice farming. Like the Ifugao, the Kalinga are prolific terrace builders. The Kalinga are also skilled craftsmen, well-versed in basketry, loom weaving, metalsmithing, and pottery, the last centred in the lower Chico River Valley.
The Pangasinan people or the Pangasinense are the eighth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines. They are predominantly Christian and they originate from the northwestern seaboard ofLuzon, mainly in the province of Pangasinan and northern Tarlac, as well as Benguet, Nueva Ecija, northern Zambales and western Nueva Vizcaya. They primarily speak and use thePangasinan language, which is spoken by more than 1.2 million people.
A feared war-like group of indigenous people who actively indulged in tribal wars with its neighbours until the 1930s. Every Bontoc male had to undergo a rites of passage into manhood, which may include head hunting, where the male has to journey and hunt for a human head. The Bontocs also used the jaw of the hunted head as a handle for gongs, and as late as the early 1990s, evidence of this practice can be seen from one of the gongs in Pukisan, Bontoc.
Other Ethnic Groups in Luzon:
- Karao, Ibaloi